Document Type : Research Paper


1 Doctoral student of sports management at Guilan University, member of the academic staff of the Faculty of Physical Education at Sulaymaniyah University, Iraq

2 Guilan University

3 university of Guilan


The purpose of this research was to present the framework of using multi-level governance for the development of sports under crisis conditions in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The research method was qualitative research with thematic analysis approach. The statistical population of the research included all scientific experts (university professors) and executives (managers of organizations related to sports) in the field of research. The number of samples required to reach theoretical saturation was selected using the snowball sampling method (16 people). The research tool was exploratory interview. The validity of the research results was confirmed based on the professional competence of the interviewed sample, the content validity of the interview framework, and the agreement of the coding correctors (2 expert researchers: 0.72). Data analysis was done using three-step coding according to the research method. The findings showed that the extracted conceptual framework included 184 core components, 60 sub-themes, 23 main themes and 8 conceptual sub-structures. The eight substructures of the model included contextual challenges, environmental adaptation, alignment of governance levels, contextualization, capacity building, strategies, and optimization of processes and consequences of multi-level governance in sports in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Based on the results, it can be said that the use of multi-level governance in sports and the achievement of its desired results requires facilitating challenges and adapting to environmental conditions, structural and managerial efficiency at the levels of sports, systemic capacity building, constructive strategic interventions and optimization of mechanisms in the sports system of ’ Kurdistan Region.


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