Document Type : Research Paper


1 Tarbiat Modares University

2 Kharazmi University

3 University of Tehran


Increase in people participation in Sport for all has always been considered by policymakers. In Iran, despite numerous agencies and departments that regard themselves as responsible for Sport for all, participants in Sport for all in our country are in less favorable situation than those in other countries. This paper aims to present a model to institutionalize sport for all of Iran. For this purpose, researchers referred to the experts of the sport for all of Iran and collected data from them through deep interviews. Then, the data resulted from twenty-nine interviews were encoded and analyzed through grounded theory method. The results of codes classification showed sixteen components at the three contextual, organizational, and behavioral levels. According to the sport for all of Iran model, it can be noted that the contextual level of sport for all of Iran, in which the other two levels are rooted, includes external environment and conditions, and generally leads to organizational and behavioral levels. The organizational level is the outer layer of behavioral level and includes the regular relations governing the internal and objective components of sport for all of Iran. The behavioral level is the factors associated with Iranian people's sporting behavior with a health approach. The relationship between these levels is close and, practically, they are inseparable in sport for all of Iran. In such relationship, levels interact with each other as continuous systematic relations. The presented model can be used as the analytical tool for sport for all of Iran so that it would solve problems of this field of sport reasonably and principally.


1. احراری، ا. .383، نقش رسانه­ها در کنترل جامعه، پژوهش و سنجش، 37: 128-107.
2. ادوارد، ج ای. تامپسون، ام دی، رزن، فلد پی. 1379. تحقیق پیمایشی (راهنمای عمل). مترجمان: اعرابی م، ایزدی د. تهران. دفترپژوهش­های فرهنگی.
3. استونر، ج ای اف. فری­من، آر ای. گیلبرت، دی آر.1382. مدیریت. مترجمان: پارساییان ع، اعرابی م.چاپ دوم. تهران، دفتر پژوهش های فرهنگی.
4. بازرگان، ع. 1387. مقدمه­ای بر روش­های تحقیق کیفی و آمیخته:رویکردهای متداول در علوم رفتاری. چاپ اول. تهران، دیدار.
5. دانایی فرد، ح. 1386. هم­سازی شیوه­های کمی و کیفی در پژوهش­های سازمانی: تاملی بر استراتژی پژوهش ترکیبی. فصلنامه حوزه و دانشگاه: روش شناسی علوم انسانی. 13(53):63-35.
6. دانایی­فرد، ح. الوانی، م. آذر، ع. 1390. روش­شناسی پژوهش کیفی در مدیریت: رویکردی جامع. چاپ چهارم. تهران. نشر صفار.
7. دفت، ار ال.1389. مبانی تئوری و طراحی سازمان. مترجمان: پارسائیان ع، اعرابی م ؛تهران. چاپ پنجم. دفتر پژوهش­های فرهنگی. ص 88.
8. سند تفضیلی نظام جامع توسعه تربیت بدنی و ورزش کشور، 1384، توسعه محیط حقوقی، نشر سیب سبز.
9. صادق فرید، م. 1386. فصلنامه فرهنگ رسانه، شماره یک، نقش آور. ص 17.
10. میرزائی اهرنجانی، ح.1377. طراحی مدلی برای تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر وجدان کاری و انضباط اجتماعی. مجموعه مقالات سمینار وجدان کاری و انضباط اجتماعی. قزوین. انتشارات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قزوین.
11. میرزایی اهرنجانی، ح، امیری م.1381. ارائه مدل سه بعدی تحلیل مبانی فلسفی و زیرساخت­های بنیادین تئوری­های مدیریت. دانش مدیریت. 56: 21- 3.
12. هومن، ح ع.1391. راهنمای عملی پژوهش کیفی، چاپ چهارم. نشر سمت.
13. Chen, T. 2011.Using Hybrid MCDM Model for Enhancing the Participation of Teacher in Recreational Sports, Journal of Decision Systems, (20)1, 33-49.
14. Cheng, S., Kozechian, H.1998. A Comparative Study on Recreational Sports Participation Among the University Students, Available on :
15. Collins,D .,Ford, P. A., MacNamara,A., Bailey,R.,Toms,M., Pearce, G. 2012.Three Worlds: New Directions in Participant Development in Sport and Physical Activity. Sport, Education and Society, (17) 2, 225-243.
16. Community Sports Committee of the Sports Commission .2009.Consultancy Study on Sport for All Participation Patterns of Hong Kong People in Physical Activities, Submitted by The Chinese University of Hong Kong Department of Sports Science & Physical Education.
17. De Liu, Y. Taylor,P. Shibli,S. 2009. Sport Equity: Benchmarking the Performance of English Public Sport Facilities, European Sport Management Quarterly, (9)1, 3-21.
18. Glaser, G.B. 1992, Emergence Vs Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Sociology Press.11-15.
19. Godbey,G.,Crawford,D.W.,Shen,X.S.2010.Assessing Hierarchical Leisure Constraints Theory after Two Decades. Journal of Leisure Research,(42)1,111-134.
20. Henderson, K., .2010, Dimensions of Leisure for Life: Individuals and Society: Importance of leisure to Individuals and society, Human Kinetics.,pp 4-21
21. Houlihan,B. 2005.Public Sector Sport Policy: Developing a Framework for Analysis, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, (40)2,pp 163–185.
22. Katzmarzyk, P.T., Gledhill, N, .Shephard, R.J.2000.The Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada,Canadian Medical Association Journal, (163) 11,1435-1440.
23. Long-Term Athlete Development: Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L).2007.Canadian Sport Centers,. Available on : http://
24. Meeting Report.2004.Physical Activity Expert Meeting "Agita Europe", Magglingen, Switzerland.
25. Mull,R., Bayless. F, Kathryn .G, Jamieson, L. 2005. Recreational Sport Management,3rd ed, Australia,Human Kinetics.p:31.
26. Park, S, and H.2004.Constraints to Recreation Sport Participation for Adolescents Exposed to Internet-Related Delinquency: Developing Marketing Strategies for Increasing Sport Participation. International Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. (16)1, PP: 41-54.
27. Sapkota, S., Bowles, H.R., Ham, S.A.2006.Adult Participation in Recommended Levels of Physical Activity: United States, 2001-2003.Journal of American Medical Association,(295) 9,27-29.
28. Schein, E; .2010.Organizatinal Culture and Leadership, 4th Edition, San Francisco Jossey- Bass Publisher, p: 32.
29. Sport for all organization.2010.home page, Available on http: // www. /eng/index.html.
30. The Framework for Sport in England .2004. Making England an Active and Successful Sporting Nation: A Vision for 2020. http:// www.
31. The world sport for all congress.2002.Declaration, Arnhem. http://www.leisure-studies
32. Van Tuyckom, C.2011.Sport for All: Fact or fiction? Individual and cross-national differences in sport participation from a European perspective, Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor in Sociology and social sciences department of sociology, Gent University.p:21.
33. Warburton, D.B.R., Nicol, C.W., Bredin, S.2006.Health Benefits of Physical Activity: the Evjdence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801‐809.