Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student in Sports Management, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sports Management, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Art University

4 Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University


The purpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting good governance in the structure of national championship sports. The present study was a type of sequential exploratory project. The statistical population in qualitative part consists of faculty members, sports policy makers and decision makers at macro level, and in quantitative part, members of Strategic Council of Ministry of Sports and Youth, senior staff managers of Ministry of Sports and Youth, middle staff managers of Ministry Sports and Youth, and vice-president and secretary of sports federations. The statistical sample was selected in qualitative section of 15 experts to reach theoretical saturation using theoretical targeted techniques and snowballs. Further, in quantitative section between 5 to 10 samples were needed for each item, so 294 people selected statistical sample. The data collection tool was a semi-structured interview in qualitative part and researcher-made questionnaire in quantitative part. The reliability of the interviews was 0.79 by intra-subject agreement study. For content validity, from experts' point of view and construct validity (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis), and combined reliability indices, Cronbach's alpha divergent and convergent validity, and structural equation modeling were used. Finally, the model of optimal governance in the structure of the country's championship sport with ten factors was presented. Therefore, it is proposed to document the governance structure based on the democratic structure, and support and evaluation of the government for the decision of the private sector and civil society, and the alignment and cooperation of all three sectors.


Main Subjects

  1. Alexander, J. C. (1998). Real civil societies: Dilemmas of institutionalization (48), SAGE Publications Limited.
  2. Amis, J., & Slack, T. (1996). The size-structure relationship in voluntary sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 10(1), 76-86.
  3. Beykzad, J., & Zare Dizaj, A. (2017). A review of concepts and theories of good organizational governance. Paper presented at the National Congress of Fundamental Research in Economics and Accounting Management, Ouj Non-Profit University, Tehran. (in Persian).
  4. Ferkins, L., & Shilbury, D. (2010). Developing board strategic capability in sport organisations: The national–regional governing relationship. Sport Management Review, 13(3), 235-254.
  5. Fleta-Asín, J., Muñoz, F., & Rosell-Martínez, J. (2020). Public-private partnerships: determinants of the type of governance structure. Public Management Review, 22(10), 1489-1514.
  6. Ghorbani, Ghahfarkhi, L., Kalani, Nasab, M., Yarahmadi, M., & Fathi, F. (2017). The role of organizational structure in the use of participatory management in the General Directorate of Sports and Youth of Hormozgan province. Organizational Behavior Management Studies, 5(1), 45-54. (in Persian).
  7. Goodarzi M. (2015). Speech at a specialized meeting on the occasion of world sports day for peace and development. National Olympic Academy, Tehran. (in Persian).
  8. Hollmann, J. K., & Elliott, B. G. (2006). Core competencies, expectations and career path for an estimating professional. AACE International Transactions, DE11.
  9. Hui, Z. H. A. O. (2014). On the Establishment about the System of Policies and Laws on Chinese Geographical Information Security in the Aspect of National Governance. Journal of Xiangtan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 06.
  10. Juliandi, J., Hendrayana, Y., Ma’mun, A., & Masri, M. (2020, February). Evaluation of sports governance in improving achievement sports. In 4th International Conference on Sport Science, Health, and Physical Education (ICSSHPE 2019) (pp. 235-237). Atlantis: Press.
  11. Lam, E. T. (2014). The roles of governance in sport organizations. Journal of Power, Politics & Governance, 2(2), 19-31.
  12. Li, W., Zheng, M., Zhang, Y., & Cui, G. (2020). Green governance structure, ownership characteristics, and corporate financing constraints. Journal of Cleaner Production, 260, 121008.
  13. Mahmoudi G. H., & Ronaghi, M. H. (2013). Determining the weight and relationship between good governance index in Iran. Quarterly Journal of Strategic Studies, 16(4), 59-87. (in Persian).
  14. Mehrabi Q., & Sajjadi S. N. (2017). Governance in sports. Tehran: Resonance of Knowledge. (in Persian).
  15. Miles, I. (2008). Patterns of innovation in service industries. IBM Systems Journal, 47(1), 115-128.
  16. Nunes, R., Nunes, S. B., & Rego, G. (2015). A new governance model for independent regulatory agencies. Theoretical Economics Letters, 5(01), 4-9.
  17. Parent, M. M., & Hoye, R. (2018). The impact of governance principles on sport organisations’ governance practices and performance: A systematic review. Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1503578.
  18. Qaedi A. (2015). Investigating the role of championship sports on social development indicators, Journal of Applied Research in Sports Management, 2015, 5(1), 35-47. (in Persian).
  19. M. J, Sedighi, S. (2012). Requirements for Good Governance to Achieve Human Development, Fourth National Conference on Economics, Islamic Azad University, Khomeini Shahr Branch. Esfehan. (in Persian).
  20. Sadraei, S. S. (2016). An introduction to the theoretical foundations of good governance (A Comparative Study of Governance in the UAE and Bahrain). Journal of Nations Research, 2(19), 24- 37. (in Persian).
  21. Sajjadi, N. (2013). Challenges of sports managers in Iran. Sports Management Studies, 22, 62-39. (in Persian).
  22. Slack, T. (1985). The bureaucratization of a voluntary sport organization. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 20(3), 145-166.
  23. Smith, D. H. (2000). Grassroots associations. London: Sage Publications.
  24. Theodoraki, E. I., & Henry, I. P. (1994). Organisational structures and contexts in British national governing bodies of sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 29(3), 243-265.
  25. Weiler, F., Klöck, C., & Dornan, M. (2018). Vulnerability, good governance, or donor interests? The allocation of aid for climate change adaptation. World Development, 104, 65-77.
  26. Yeh, C. M., & Taylor, T. (2008). Issues of governance in sport organizations: A question of board size, structure and roles. World Leisure Journal, 50(1), 33-45.
  27. Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A Social Cognitive View of Self-regulated Academic Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329-339.