Document Type : Research Paper


1 university of kurdistan

2 Ph.D. Student in Sport Management, University of Kurdistan


Team Identification and Sports Fandom are among the most important predictors of aggression in football fans that their impact varies with the age of the fans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of age in relationship between Team Identification and Sports Fandom with aggression of football fans. The present study was descriptive and correlational that conducted in field method. The statistical population of study was Esteghlal Fans of which 211 persons were selected as the sample. The research instrument consisted of five standard questionnaires of Sport Fandom, Team Identification, Self-reported Aggressiveness, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression. In this study, the data were analyzed using variance-based structural equation modeling. The results showed that Team Identification and Sports Fandom have a positive and significant effect on self-report Aggressiveness, Verbal and Physical Aggression. Also Age has a significant effect on Team Identification, Sports Fandom, Self-report Aggression, Verbal and Physical Aggression, but these effects are negative and inverse. Also, the effect of Team Identification and sports fandom on self-report Aggressiveness, Verbal and Physical Aggression among the young fans was more than middle-aged and old fans, and the effect of Team Identification and Sports Fandom on self-report Aggressiveness, Verbal and Physical Aggression among the middle-aged Fans were more than old fans. According to the results organizers of the football matches in the country and the fan club of the teams can use the older fans to control the emotions of the younger fans and reduce the aggression of the fans.


  1. Abbaszadeh, M., Saadati, M., Kabiri, A., & Ashayeri, T. (2018). Sociological Study of Factors Affecting Aggression among Soccer Spectators. Scientific Journal Management System, 9(4), 35-70. (Persian)
  2. Aiken, K. D., Campbell Jr, R. M., & Sukhdial, A. (2010). An Investigation of Old School Values in the Arena Football League. Sport Marketing Quarterly19(3), 125-131.
  3. Andam, R., & Salimi, M. (2016). Model for Factors Influencing Positive Behavior of Iran Handball Premier League Competitions Fans. Sport Management Studies, 8(38), 51-68. (Persian)
  4. Anderson, C. A., & Huesmann, L. R. (2007). Human aggression: A social-cognitive view. The Sage handbook of social psychology, 259-287.
  5. Azami, M. K., & Mohammadi, S. (2018). The Effect of Team and Organizational Identity on Consumer’s Attitude toward CRSM. Sport Management Studies, 10(48), 215-242. (Persian)
  6. Bengtsson, H. (2016), Football violence on the rise again: Uefa disciplinary actions up 64% in two years, The Guardian. football/datablog/2016/jun/18/football-violence-on-the-rise-again-uefa-disciplinary-actions-up-64-in-two-years.
  7. Charles, S. T., & Carstensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual review of psychology61, 383-409.
  8. Donahue, T., & Wann, D. L. (2009). Perceptions of the Appropriateness of Sport Fan Physical and Verbal Aggression: Potential Influences of Team Identification and Fan Dysfunction. North American Journal of Psychology11(3), 419-428.
  9. Funk, D. C. (2009). Consumer behaviour in sport and events marketing, Oxford: Elsevier.
  10. Gholami Torkesaluye, S., & Heydarinejad, S. (2015). Study of Affecting Factors leading to Aggression from the Viewpoint of Football Fans in Ahwaz. Sport Management Studies, 7(28), 121-134.
  11. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall.
  12. Heere, B. (2016). Team identity theory. Routledge handbook of theory in sport management, 213-222.
  13. Kim, E., & Gower, K. K. (2017). What Elements Reinforce NFL Fans’ Identification and How Does This Identification Work on Behavioral Intentions?. Evolution of the Modern Sports Fan: Communicative Approaches, 29.
  14. Koch, K., & Wann, D. L. (2016). Team Identification and Sport Fandom: Gender Differences in Relationship-Based and Recognition-Based Perceived Antecedents. Journal of Sport Behavior39(3), 278-300.
  15. Kunzmann, U., Richter, D., & Schmukle, S. C. (2013). Stability and change in affective experience across the adult life span: Analyses with a national sample from Germany. Emotion13(6), 1086-1120.
  16. Lock, D., & Heere, B. (2017). Identity crisis: A theoretical analysis of ‘team identification ’research. European Sport Management Quarterly17(4), 413-435.
  17. Melnick, M. J., & Wann, D. L. (2011). An examination of sport fandom in Australia: Socialization, team identification, and fan behavior. International Review for the Sociology of Sport46(4), 456-470.
  18. Park, J., Suh, Y., & Pedersen, P. M. (2016). Examining spectator motivations in major league baseball: a comparison between senior and non-senior consumers. Choregia: Sport Management International Journal12(2), 13-36.
  19. Phillips, L. H., Henry, J. D., Hosie, J. A., & Milne, A. B. (2006). Age, anger regulation and well-being. Aging and Mental Health10(3), 250-256.
  20. Poorzarnegar, J. (2018). Investigating the Reasons for Aggressive Football Spectators in Rasht Stadiums and Providing Solutions to Reduce It, Quarterly Journal of Modern Research Approaches to Management and Accounting, 2 (5), 88-80. (Persian)
  21. Poorzarnegar, J., Enteshari, F. (2018). Comparison of Guilan Province Football Stakeholders' Viewpoints on Factors Affecting Audience Aggression. Modern Research Approaches to Management and Accounting, (6), 127-142. (Persian)
  22. Rahmati, M. M., Kabiri, S., & Shadmanfaat, S. M. (2014). Team identification, sport fandom identity and willingness to verbal/physical aggressive actions among soccer fans. International Journal of Basic Sciences and Applied Research3(10), 760-764.
  23. Rainey, D. W., Larsen, J., & Yost, J. H. (2009). Disappointment Theory and Disappointment among Baseball Fans. Journal of Sport Behavior32(3), 339-356.
  24. Rocca, K. A., & Vogl‐Bauer, S. (1999). Trait verbal aggression, sports fan identification, and perceptions of appropriate sports fan communication.Communication Research Reports, 16(3), 239-248.
  25. Russell, G.W. (2004). Sportriots:A social–Psychological Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 9, 353–378.
  26. Saadati, M., & Abbbaszadeh, M. (2013). A Sociological Study of Factors Affecting Aggression among Spectators of Tabriz Tractor Football Team. Research project of Eastern Azarbaijan Police Force Applied Research Office.
  27. Schaillée, H., Spaaij, R., Jeanes, R., & Theeboom, M. (2019). Knowledge Translation Practices, Enablers, and Constraints: Bridging the Research–Practice Divide in Sport Management. Journal of Sport Management, 33(5), 1-13.
  28. Scheibe, S., Spieler, I., & Kuba, K. (2016). An older-age advantage? Emotion regulation and emotional experience after a day of work. Work, Aging and Retirement2(3), 307-320.
  29. Spaaij, R. (2014). Sports crowd violence: An interdisciplinary synthesis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(2), pp: 146-155.
  30. Theodorakis, N. D., Koustelios, A., Robinson, L., & Barlas, A. (2009). Moderating role of team identification on the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators of professional sports. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal19(4), 456-473.
  31. Toder-Alon, A., Icekson, T., & Shuv-Ami, A. (2019). Team identification and sports fandom as predictors of fan aggression: The moderating role of ageing. Sport Management Review22(2), 194-208.
  32. Wahl, H. W., Iwarsson, S., & Oswald, F. (2012). Aging well and the environment: Toward an integrative model and research agenda for the future. The Gerontologist52(3), 306-316.
  33. Wann, D. L. (2002).Preliminary validation of a measure for assessing identification as a sport fan: The Sport Fandom Questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Management, 3, 103–115.
  34. Wann, D. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (1993). Sports fans: Measuring degree of identification with their team. International Journal of Sport Psychology.
  35. Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., & Schrader, M. P. (1999). The impact of team identification on the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14(2), 279-286.
  36. Wann, D. L., Culver, Z., Akanda, R., Daglar, M., De Divitiis, C., & Smith, A. (2005). The effects of team identification and game outcome on willingness to consider anonymous acts of hostile aggression. Journal of Sport Behavior28(3), 282-294.
  37. Wann, D. L., Melnick, M. J., Russell, G. W., & Pease, D. G. (2001). Sport fans: The psychology and social impact of spectators. Routledge, 184.
  38. Wann, D. L., Weaver, S., Belva, B., Ladd, S., & Armstrong, S. (2015). Investigating the impact of team identification on the willingness to commit verbal and physical aggression by youth baseball spectators. Journal of Amateur Sport1(1), 1-28.