Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Malard Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

2 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran


The present study aimed to examine the relationships among core product quality, service quality and spectators’ involvement, in the context of professional football. 840 spectators from ten teams of Iranian pro league of football were selected through stratified-random sampling, and they completed the scales of study, voluntarily. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to evaluate and test hypotheses. The results of the test showed that the research model has appropriate fitness and can be used to evaluate the involvement of football spectators. The effect of the core product quality on the involvement of the spectators was significant, while the quality of services did not have a significant effect on their involvement. Results showed that there is not enough creativity in response to the needs and demands of the spectators from the managers and sports organization. Therefore, if conditions are provided that, along with factors affecting the quality of the core product, the factors that affect the quality of services can also be creatively strengthened, we will undoubtedly see more involvement of consumers.


Main Subjects

  1. Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C., & Alexandris, K. (2009). Operationalizing a theory of participation in physically active leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 177-203.
  2. Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L., & Jordan, J. (2011). Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Sport Management Review, 14(2), 126-40.
  3. Bee, C. C., & Havitz, M. E. (2010). Exploring the relationship between involvement, fan attraction, psychological commitment and behavioural loyalty in a sports spectator context. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 11(2), 37-54.
  4. Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Yoshida, M., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). The role of service quality and ticket pricing on satisfaction and behavioural intention within professional football. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 14(4), 301- 26.
  5. Cheraghi Abajelo, Sh., & Janani, H. (2015). The relationship between the effective factors on the attendance of shahrdari Urmia audiences and their shopping behavior in Iran professional volleyball league. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 5(1), 1952-6.
  6. Doyle, J. P., Kunkel, T., & Funk, D. C. (2013). Sports spectator segmentation: Examining the differing psychological connections among spectators of leagues and teams. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 14(2), 20-36.
  7.  Emadi, M., & Nasseh, M. (2015). Analysis of affecting factors on fans' satisfaction and attendance in Iran football Premier League's stadium. Sport Management and Development, 3(2), 63-75. (Persian).
  8. Funk, D. (2008). Consumer behaviour in sport and events: Marketing action. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  9. Funk, D. C., Beaton, A., & Pritchard, M. (2011). The stage-based development of physically active leisure: A recreational golf context. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(2), 268-89.
  10. Funk, D. C., & James, J. (2001). The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual's psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4(2), 119-50.
  11. Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2008). Measuring attitudinal loyalty: Separating the terms of affective commitment and attitudinal loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 227-39.
  12. Hosseini. S. E., Pourkiani. M., & Afroozeh. A. (2018). The effect of sensory stimuli in sport stadium on arousal, satisfaction and revisit intention of football spectators. Sport Management Studies, 10(47), 205-24. (Persian).
  13. Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M. E. (2004). Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(1), 45-72.
  14. Jaberi, A., Naderian Jahromi, M., & Mazloumi Sovini, F. (2013). The role of service qualities stadiums in attracting spectators. Journal of New Approaches in Sport Sciences, 2(5), 25-42. (Persian).
  15. Khatibi, A., Sajadi, S.N., & Seif Panahi, J. (2011). A study on the quality of educational services of the faculty of physical education of the University of Tehran from the point of view of undergraduate students, Sport Management Studies, 9(3), 77-94. (Persian).
  16. Kotler, P., Saunders, J., & Armstrong, G. (2004). Principles of marketing: European edition. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.
  17. Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2004). Effect of activity involvement and place attachment on recreationists' perceptions of setting density. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(2), 209-31.
  18. Malekian, A., Tojari, F., Hajianzahaei, Z. (2018). Examining the conceptual model of sport spectator segmentation with PCM and SLIM approach. Sport Management Studies, 9(46), 31-50. (Persian).
  19. Rajabzadeh, R., Talebpoor, M., Mirzapour, A. (2018). Examining effective factors on spectators’ attendance in Volleyball Premier League: A case study of Mazandaran spectators. Quarterly Journal of Sport Development and Management, 6(2), 141-56. (Persian).
  20. Ramezanian, M., Faraji, R., Khoshnevis, F., & Danesh Sani, K. (2013). A survey on service quality in university sports’ facilities based on SERVQUAL model (Case study: University of Guilan). Sport Management and Development, 2(1), 65-83. (Persian).
  21. Sabil Hussein, A. (2016). How event awareness, event quality and event image creates visitor revisit intention? A lesson from car free day event. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 396-400.
  22. Sajadi, S. N., Khabiri, M., & Alizadeh Golrizi, A. (2013). The factors influencing fan’s loyalty toward the most popular teams brand in Iran’s professional football league. Sport Management Studies, 18, 81-100. (Persian).
  23. Sang Woo, B. (2003). Attitudes, interests and sport spectator profiling: Variables affecting game attendance in NHL franchise (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  24. Soheili, B., Tojari, F., & Zarei, A. (2018a). Measuring sport spectators’ involvement Levels in Iranian Pro League of Football within the Framework of the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM). Sport Psychology Studies, 7(25), 175-94. (Persian).  
  25. Soheili, B., Tojari, F., & Zarei, A. (2018b). Testing the model of spectators’ satisfaction in Iranian Premier League of Football. Journal of Sport Management, 10(1), 181-203. (Persian).
  26. Taghizadeh, B., Ghorbani, H. O., & Behnam, M. (2015). The psychological continuum model: Examination of spectators’involvement levels in the football. Sport Science, 8(1), 64-71.
  27. Theodorakis, N. D., Alexandris, K., Tsigilis, K., & Karvounis. S. (2013). Predicting spectators’ behavioural intentions in professional football: The role of satisfaction and service quality, Sport Management Review, 16, 85–96.
  28. Theodorakis, N. D., Koustelios, A., Robinson, L., & Barlas, A. (2009). Moderating role of team identification on the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators of professional sports. Managing Service Quality, 19(4), 456–73.
  29. Yoshida, M., & James, J. (2010). Customer satisfaction with game and service experience: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Sport Management, 24(3), 338–61.