Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Economics, University of Tehran

2 Ph.D. Student of Economics, Payame Noor University, Tehran


The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of governmental sports revenues and expenditures on the added value of the sports sector from 1976 to 2013. In order to test the long run relationship between the variables, the method of Johanson cointegration, and in order to estimate the model, the approach of autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) have been used. The results show a long run equilibrium relationship between the variables. Findings show that government sports expenditure and GDP have had a positive and significant effect on the added value of sports sector. Moreover, increased oil revenues had a more significant effect on the added value of sports sector than increased tax revenues had. In other words, oil revenues served sports more than tax revenues did. This policy making deficiency has to be addressed in government’s budgeting and programming. Furthermore, government’s sports expenditures have been the main source of changes in sports sector in Iran. This dependence and heavy reliance of sports sector’s added value on government expenditure has to be the concern of policy makers in this field.


Main Subjects

1. Ajdari. A. A., Heydari. H, & Abdolahi, M. (2017). An examinination on factors determining value-added in Iran’s industry and mine sector in term of johansen's cointegration model. Journal of parliament and strategy, 24(89), 105-32. (Persian).
2. Alizadeh, Z., & Henry, H. (2010). Investigating the factors affecting entrepreneurship in sport as a domain. Quarterly journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 2(2), 113 -36. (Persian).
3. Askarian, F., Faraji Dana, A., Gdarzi, M., & Jafari, A. (2004). Survey the economic situation of Iranian sports industry in years 1998 and 2001, Motion Magazine, 24(24), 25-43. (Persian).
4. Askarian, F. (2004). Survey the economic situation of Iranian sports industry in years 1377 and 1380 (Relying on estimates GDSP). (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tehran University, Iran. (Persian).
5. Berrett, T., & Reimer, R. (2005). The economic significance of amateur sport in the city of Calgary in 2002. Avaialable at: Recreation/ Documents / Research - and - development/ Economic-final-report.pdf? nore direct =1 (Accessed 23 March 2014).
6. Bing, F. (2011). Study on development path of Shandong sports industry from the perspective of low-carbon economy. Energy Procedia, 5, 879–83.
7. Chernoushenko, D. (2005). Sustainable sports management. (M. Azadi, translator). Tehran: Publications of the National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
8. Ethiquia, N. (2001). Marketing and sport management interaction. Research in Sport Sciences, 1(1), 146-30. (Persian).
9. Ehsani, M., AbuDarda, Z., & Eqbali, M. (2008). Survey the causes of lack of support from sponsors of professional sports for women in Isfahan. Science Movement, 6(12), 111-20. (Persian).
10. Haan, M.; Koning, R.H. & Witteloostuijn, A. V. (2002) Market force in European Soccer; This paper was prepared for the Dutch Conference on Market regulation.
13. Hoshmand, M. M., & Danesh nia, M. A. (2011). Impact of financial development on economic growth in Iran. Monetary and Financial Economics (Formerly Knowledge and Development), 2(18), 45-61. (Persian).
14. Kalashi, M., Hoseini, S. E., & Rajaei, M. H. (2016). The effect of government and households’ sports expenditure to gross domestic product in Iran. Sport Management Studies, 8(38), 165-82. (Persian).
15. Khosravizadeh, E., Bahrami, A., & Haqdady, A. (2014). Barriers to investment and private sector participation in sports in central province. Sports Management Studies, 6(24), 222-72. (Persian).
16. Meek, A. (1997). An estimate of the size and supported economic activity of the sport industry in the United States, industry analysis. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(4), 15-21.
17. Naderiyan, M., & Ghodousi, N. (2015). Identify bottlenecks in private sector investment in production Sports equipment and equipment. Applied Research in Sport Management, 12(4), 63-73. (Persian).
18. Nademi, Y., & Zubairi, H. (2016). The effect of oil revenues on the added value of the sub sectors of industry in Iran with the space-mode model. Quarterly Journal of Strategic and Macro Policy, 4(14), 125-52. (Persian).
19. Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. J. (2001). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.
20. Rahmani, T. (2005). Macroeconomics (10 edition, Vol. 1). Tehran: Brothers Press. (Persian).
21. Rosner, D. (1989). The world plays catch-up. The Sports Business Weekly, 1(1), 8-13.
22. Rostamzadeh, P., Sadeghi, H., Asari, A., & Yavari, K. (2014). The effect of government investment in sports on economic growth in Iran. The Economic Research (Scientific Research Quarterly), 14(4),177-210. (Persian).
23. Rostamzadeh, P. (2013). The effect of sport government spending on economic growth and development in Iran. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran. (Persian).
24. Sajadi, S. N. (2008). Sport organization management. Tehran: SAMT Press. (Persian).
25. Seyed Ameri, M. H.; Moharramzadeh, M., Bashiri, M. & Hadi, H. (2009). Obstacles of Attracting Sponsorship in the Sport Industry of East Azarbaijan Province. Journal Scientific Studies Management, 10(3), 147-64.
26. Shahbazi, K., & Akramzadeh, L. (2014). Impact of monetary and financial policies on the value added of the industrial sector in Iran in line with the general policies of the industry. Quarterly Journal of Strategic and Macroeconomic Policies, 2(8), 93-110.
27. Sharifian, E., Yousefi Zandi, M. H., & Ghahreman Tabrizi, K. (2016). Comparison internal-sector barriers for competition with foreign products in Iran sports industry. Applied Research of Sport Management, 5(1), 73-82. (Persian).
28. Skinner, J., & Zakus, D. H. (2008). Development through Sport: Building social capital in disadvantaged communities. Sport Management Review, 11(3), 253-75.
29. St. John CH., Cannon, A; Pouder, R. (2001). Change drivers in the new millennium: an agenda for operations sterategy research, j Oper Manage; 19: 143-60.
30. Sport Industry Research Centre. (2007). The economic importance of sport in Scotland 2004 sport Scotland’s research digest. Available at: Documents/ Resources/ The Economic Importance of Sport in Scotland 2004.doc (Accessed 2 May 2014).
31. The European Commission. (2012). Study on the contribution of sport to economic growth and employment in the EU. Study commissioned by the European commission, directorate-general education and culture final report,
32. Veisi. K., Kozechian, H., Ehsani, M. , & Kashtidar, M. (2016). Exploring the process of organizational agility in sports manufacturing corporations using grounded theory. Sport Management Studies, 7(34), 51-72. (Persian).
33. Zamanzadeh, H. (2010). One decade of economic performance in the light of macroeconomic indicators. What's New Economy, 8(129), 35-43. (Persian).
34. Zamani, M., Hoseyni, S. A., & Rajaei, M. H. (2012). The impact of sport expenditures on gross domestic product in Iran. Journal of Sport Management, 4(15), 143-56. (Persian).